The performance of rechargeable batteries is influenced by the structural
and phase changes of components during cycling. Neutron powder diffraction
(NPD) provides unique and useful information concerning the
structure–function relation of battery components and can be used to study
the changes to component phase and structure during battery cycling,
known as in operando measurement studies. The development and use of
NPD for in operando measurements of batteries is summarized along with
detailed experimental approaches that impact the insights gained by these.
A summary of the information gained concerning battery function using in
operando NPD measurements is provided, including the structural and phase
evolution of electrode materials and charge-carrying ion diffusion pathways
through these, which are critical to the development of battery technology.