Under the double pressures of both the energy crisis and environmental pollution, the exploitation and utilization of hydrogen, a clean and renewable power resource, has become an important trend in the development of sustainable energy-production and energy-consumption systems. In this regard, the electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) provides an efficient and clean pathway for the mass production of hydrogen fuel and has motivated the design and construction of highly active HER electrocatalysts of an acceptable cost. In particular, graphene-based electrocatalysts commonly exhibit an enhanced HER performance owing to their distinctive structural merits, including a large surface area, high electrical conductivity, and good chemical stability. Considering the rapidly growing research enthusiasm for this topic over the last several years, herein, a panoramic review of recent advances in graphene-based electrocatalysts is presented, covering various advanced synthetic strategies, microstructural characterizations, and the applications of such materials in HER electrocatalysis. Lastly, future perspectives on the challenges and opportunities awaiting this emerging field are proposed and discussed.