The development of high-performance anode materials for next-generation lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) is vital to meeting the requirements for large-scale applications ranging from electric vehicles to power grids. Conversion-type transition-metal compounds are attractive anodes for next-generation LIBs because of their diverse compositions and high theoretical specific capacities. Here, we provide an overview of the recent development of some representative conversion-type anode materials (CTAMs) in LIBs. In this review, we start with an introduction to typical CTAMs and their lithium storage mechanisms. Then, we present the obstacles to their widespread implementation and the corresponding nanoengineering strategies for high-performance CTAMs, including the use of low-dimensional nanostructures, hierarchical porous nanostructures, hollow structures, and hybridization with various carbonaceous materials. Particularly, we highlight the relationship between these nanostructures and the lithium storage properties. Lastly, we present some perspectives on the current challenges and possible research directions for nanostructured CTAMs. Despite the successful commercialization of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) in portable electronic devices, intensive research on high-energy density batteries is still ongoing to meet the energy demand for upcoming large-scale applications ranging from electric vehicles to power grids. Hence, high-energy density electrode materials have become the research emphasis for next-generation LIBs. Among various candidates, transition-metal compounds based on the conversion reaction mechanism have attracted great interest because of their high theoretical specific capacities. In this review, recent advances on the design and synthesis of nanostructured conversion-type anode materials (CTAMs) in LIBs are presented. The CTAMs covered in this review are transition-metal oxides, sulfides, selenides, fluorides, nitrides, and phosphides. Various advanced strategies toward high-performance CTAMs in LIBs, including structural engineering and carbon hybridization, are discussed. Numerous strategies have been developed to improve the lithium storage properties of conversion-type anode materials (CTAMs) for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). In this review, we highlight the recent progress in nanoengineering strategies for advanced CTAMs in LIBs. Specifically, the nanostructures obtained are summarized into four categories, including low-dimensional materials, hierarchical porous configurations, unique hollow architectures with diverse features, and hybridization of CTAMs with various carbonaceous materials. Moreover, some challenges and personal perspectives of nanostructured CTAMs are presented.