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Vehicle Ammonia Emissions Measured in An Urban Environment in Sydney, Australia, Using Open Path Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy

Journal Article


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Abstract


  • Airborne particulate matter (PM) is a major health risk in urban settings. Ammonia

    (NH3) from vehicle exhaust is an under-recognised ingredient in the formation of inorganic PM

    and there remains a shortage of data to properly quantify the role of NH3 from vehicles in PM

    formation. An Open-path Fourier transform infra-red (OP-FTIR) spectrometer measured atmospheric

    NH3, carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) at high temporal resolution (5 min) in

    Western Sydney over 11 months. The oxides of nitrogen (NO2 and NO; NOx) and sulphur dioxide

    (SO2) were measured at an adjacent air quality monitoring station. NH3 levels were maxima in

    the morning and evening coincident with peak traffic. During peak traffic NH3:CO ratio ranged

    from 0.018 to 0.022 ppbv:ppbv. Results were compared with the Greater Metropolitan Region 2008

    (GMR2008) emissions inventory. Measured NH3:CO was higher during peak traffic times than

    the GMR2008 emissions estimates, indicating an underestimation of vehicle NH3 emissions in the

    inventory. Measurements also indicated the urban atmosphere was NH3 rich for the formation of

    ammonium sulphate ((NH4)2SO4) particulate was SO2 limited while the formation of ammonium

    nitrate (NH4NO3) was NH3 limited. Any reduction in NOx emissions with improved catalytic

    converter efficiency will be accompanied by an increase in NH3 production and potentially with an

    increase in NH4NO3 particulate.

Publication Date


  • 2019

Citation


  • Phillips, F. A., Naylor, T., Forehead, H., Griffith, D. W. T., Kirkwood, J. & Paton-Walsh, C. (2019). Vehicle Ammonia Emissions Measured in An Urban Environment in Sydney, Australia, Using Open Path Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy. Atmosphere, 10 (4), 208-1-208-29.

Scopus Eid


  • 2-s2.0-85069856030

Ro Full-text Url


  • https://ro.uow.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1888&context=smhpapers1

Ro Metadata Url


  • http://ro.uow.edu.au/smhpapers1/874

Start Page


  • 208-1

End Page


  • 208-29

Volume


  • 10

Issue


  • 4

Place Of Publication


  • Switzerland

Abstract


  • Airborne particulate matter (PM) is a major health risk in urban settings. Ammonia

    (NH3) from vehicle exhaust is an under-recognised ingredient in the formation of inorganic PM

    and there remains a shortage of data to properly quantify the role of NH3 from vehicles in PM

    formation. An Open-path Fourier transform infra-red (OP-FTIR) spectrometer measured atmospheric

    NH3, carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) at high temporal resolution (5 min) in

    Western Sydney over 11 months. The oxides of nitrogen (NO2 and NO; NOx) and sulphur dioxide

    (SO2) were measured at an adjacent air quality monitoring station. NH3 levels were maxima in

    the morning and evening coincident with peak traffic. During peak traffic NH3:CO ratio ranged

    from 0.018 to 0.022 ppbv:ppbv. Results were compared with the Greater Metropolitan Region 2008

    (GMR2008) emissions inventory. Measured NH3:CO was higher during peak traffic times than

    the GMR2008 emissions estimates, indicating an underestimation of vehicle NH3 emissions in the

    inventory. Measurements also indicated the urban atmosphere was NH3 rich for the formation of

    ammonium sulphate ((NH4)2SO4) particulate was SO2 limited while the formation of ammonium

    nitrate (NH4NO3) was NH3 limited. Any reduction in NOx emissions with improved catalytic

    converter efficiency will be accompanied by an increase in NH3 production and potentially with an

    increase in NH4NO3 particulate.

Publication Date


  • 2019

Citation


  • Phillips, F. A., Naylor, T., Forehead, H., Griffith, D. W. T., Kirkwood, J. & Paton-Walsh, C. (2019). Vehicle Ammonia Emissions Measured in An Urban Environment in Sydney, Australia, Using Open Path Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy. Atmosphere, 10 (4), 208-1-208-29.

Scopus Eid


  • 2-s2.0-85069856030

Ro Full-text Url


  • https://ro.uow.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1888&context=smhpapers1

Ro Metadata Url


  • http://ro.uow.edu.au/smhpapers1/874

Start Page


  • 208-1

End Page


  • 208-29

Volume


  • 10

Issue


  • 4

Place Of Publication


  • Switzerland