Skip to main content
placeholder image

Vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy and its associated factors among third trimester Malaysian pregnant women

Journal Article


Abstract


  • Background Despite perennial sunshine, vitamin D deficiency is prevalent among Malaysians especially pregnant women. This study determines the vitamin D status and its associated factors among third trimester pregnant women attending government health clinics in Selangor and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    Methods Information on socio-demographic characteristics, obstetrical history, and sun exposure were obtained through face-to-face interviews. Vitamin D intake was assessed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was measured and classified as deficient (< 30 nmol/L), insufficient (30–50 nmol/L), and sufficient ( 50 nmol/L).

    Results Of the 535 pregnant women recruited, 42.6% were vitamin D deficient. They consumed an average of 8.7 ± 6.7 μg of vitamin D daily. A total of 80.4% of the vitamin D were obtained from the food sources, while 19.6% were from dietary supplements. Fish and fish products showed the highest contribution to vitamin D intake (35.8%). The multivariable generalized linear mixed models, with clinic as a random effect, indicates that higher intake of vitamin D is associated with lower odds of vitamin D deficiency among pregnant women (OR = 0.96; 95% CI = 0.93–0.99). The odds of having vitamin D deficiency was reduced by 87% in non-Malays (OR = 0.14; 95% CI = 0.05–0.41) compared to Malays. No associations were found between age, educational level, monthly household income, work status, gravidity, parity, pre-pregnancy body mass index, total hours of sun exposure, total percentage of body surface area, and sun exposure index per day with vitamin D deficiency.

    Conclusion Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent among Malaysian pregnant women. Considering the possible adverse obstetric and fetal outcomes of vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy, future nutrition education should emphasise on vitamin D-fortified foods consumption among pregnant women by taking into consideration ethnic differences.

UOW Authors


  •   Woon, Fui Chee (external author)
  •   Chin, Yit Siew (external author)
  •   Ismail, Intan Hakimah (external author)
  •   Batterham, Marijka
  •   Latiff, Amir (external author)
  •   Gan, Wan Ying (external author)
  •   Appannah, Geeta (external author)
  •   Hussien, Siti (external author)
  •   Edi, Muliana (external author)
  •   Tan, Meng (external author)
  •   Chan, Yoke Mun (external author)

Publication Date


  • 2019

Citation


  • Woon, F., Chin, Y., Ismail, I., Batterham, M., Latiff, A., Gan, W., Appannah, G., Hussien, S. Mohammed., Edi, M., Tan, M. & Chan, Y. (2019). Vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy and its associated factors among third trimester Malaysian pregnant women. PLoS One, 14 (6), 1-12.

Scopus Eid


  • 2-s2.0-85067616532

Number Of Pages


  • 11

Start Page


  • 1

End Page


  • 12

Volume


  • 14

Issue


  • 6

Place Of Publication


  • United States

Abstract


  • Background Despite perennial sunshine, vitamin D deficiency is prevalent among Malaysians especially pregnant women. This study determines the vitamin D status and its associated factors among third trimester pregnant women attending government health clinics in Selangor and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    Methods Information on socio-demographic characteristics, obstetrical history, and sun exposure were obtained through face-to-face interviews. Vitamin D intake was assessed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was measured and classified as deficient (< 30 nmol/L), insufficient (30–50 nmol/L), and sufficient ( 50 nmol/L).

    Results Of the 535 pregnant women recruited, 42.6% were vitamin D deficient. They consumed an average of 8.7 ± 6.7 μg of vitamin D daily. A total of 80.4% of the vitamin D were obtained from the food sources, while 19.6% were from dietary supplements. Fish and fish products showed the highest contribution to vitamin D intake (35.8%). The multivariable generalized linear mixed models, with clinic as a random effect, indicates that higher intake of vitamin D is associated with lower odds of vitamin D deficiency among pregnant women (OR = 0.96; 95% CI = 0.93–0.99). The odds of having vitamin D deficiency was reduced by 87% in non-Malays (OR = 0.14; 95% CI = 0.05–0.41) compared to Malays. No associations were found between age, educational level, monthly household income, work status, gravidity, parity, pre-pregnancy body mass index, total hours of sun exposure, total percentage of body surface area, and sun exposure index per day with vitamin D deficiency.

    Conclusion Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent among Malaysian pregnant women. Considering the possible adverse obstetric and fetal outcomes of vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy, future nutrition education should emphasise on vitamin D-fortified foods consumption among pregnant women by taking into consideration ethnic differences.

UOW Authors


  •   Woon, Fui Chee (external author)
  •   Chin, Yit Siew (external author)
  •   Ismail, Intan Hakimah (external author)
  •   Batterham, Marijka
  •   Latiff, Amir (external author)
  •   Gan, Wan Ying (external author)
  •   Appannah, Geeta (external author)
  •   Hussien, Siti (external author)
  •   Edi, Muliana (external author)
  •   Tan, Meng (external author)
  •   Chan, Yoke Mun (external author)

Publication Date


  • 2019

Citation


  • Woon, F., Chin, Y., Ismail, I., Batterham, M., Latiff, A., Gan, W., Appannah, G., Hussien, S. Mohammed., Edi, M., Tan, M. & Chan, Y. (2019). Vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy and its associated factors among third trimester Malaysian pregnant women. PLoS One, 14 (6), 1-12.

Scopus Eid


  • 2-s2.0-85067616532

Number Of Pages


  • 11

Start Page


  • 1

End Page


  • 12

Volume


  • 14

Issue


  • 6

Place Of Publication


  • United States