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Towards an ultimate explanation for mixed-species shoaling

Journal Article


Abstract


  • The formation of social groups has important impacts on fitness for many animal species, with differences in group compositions resulting in a range of fitness outcomes for individuals. Recent interest in mixed-species grouping, which extends from a large body of literature invested in understanding single-species grouping, highlights novel complexities of group formation which relate to phenotypic, behavioural and physiological differences that naturally exist between species. Among fishes, mixed-species shoaling is a common form of social grouping behaviour displayed across a range of marine and freshwater ecosystems. Research explaining mixed-species shoaling shows some overlap with explanations for single-species shoaling; however, it also demonstrates that distinct differences between species give rise to unique cost-benefit trade-offs which need to be incorporated into conceptual models of mixed-species shoaling behaviour. Unique predation related trade-offs may arise from inefficiency of the confusion effect, variation in vigilance between species and unequal species-preferences shown by predators, whilst unique foraging-related trade-offs may arise from diet partitioning, variations in foraging behaviour and differences in competitive abilities between species. We review the literature on fitness outcomes associated with mixed-species shoaling and present a new theoretical framework to explain the cost-benefit trade-offs for individuals within mixed-species shoals. The framework incorporates both trade-offs arising from differences between species and those arising from group size, the former having been largely ignored due to a focus on single-species shoaling. Our framework is designed to inform future research striving to explain mixed-species shoaling behaviour.

Authors


  •   Paijmans, Kai (external author)
  •   Booth, David (external author)
  •   Wong, Marian Y. L.

Publication Date


  • 2019

Citation


  • Paijmans, K. C., Booth, D. J. & Wong, M. Y.L. (2019). Towards an ultimate explanation for mixed-species shoaling. Fish and Fisheries, Online First 1-13.

Scopus Eid


  • 2-s2.0-85067413877

Ro Metadata Url


  • http://ro.uow.edu.au/smhpapers1/780

Number Of Pages


  • 12

Start Page


  • 1

End Page


  • 13

Volume


  • Online First

Place Of Publication


  • United Kingdom

Abstract


  • The formation of social groups has important impacts on fitness for many animal species, with differences in group compositions resulting in a range of fitness outcomes for individuals. Recent interest in mixed-species grouping, which extends from a large body of literature invested in understanding single-species grouping, highlights novel complexities of group formation which relate to phenotypic, behavioural and physiological differences that naturally exist between species. Among fishes, mixed-species shoaling is a common form of social grouping behaviour displayed across a range of marine and freshwater ecosystems. Research explaining mixed-species shoaling shows some overlap with explanations for single-species shoaling; however, it also demonstrates that distinct differences between species give rise to unique cost-benefit trade-offs which need to be incorporated into conceptual models of mixed-species shoaling behaviour. Unique predation related trade-offs may arise from inefficiency of the confusion effect, variation in vigilance between species and unequal species-preferences shown by predators, whilst unique foraging-related trade-offs may arise from diet partitioning, variations in foraging behaviour and differences in competitive abilities between species. We review the literature on fitness outcomes associated with mixed-species shoaling and present a new theoretical framework to explain the cost-benefit trade-offs for individuals within mixed-species shoals. The framework incorporates both trade-offs arising from differences between species and those arising from group size, the former having been largely ignored due to a focus on single-species shoaling. Our framework is designed to inform future research striving to explain mixed-species shoaling behaviour.

Authors


  •   Paijmans, Kai (external author)
  •   Booth, David (external author)
  •   Wong, Marian Y. L.

Publication Date


  • 2019

Citation


  • Paijmans, K. C., Booth, D. J. & Wong, M. Y.L. (2019). Towards an ultimate explanation for mixed-species shoaling. Fish and Fisheries, Online First 1-13.

Scopus Eid


  • 2-s2.0-85067413877

Ro Metadata Url


  • http://ro.uow.edu.au/smhpapers1/780

Number Of Pages


  • 12

Start Page


  • 1

End Page


  • 13

Volume


  • Online First

Place Of Publication


  • United Kingdom