The selective leaching of zinc from three different basic oxygen steelmaking (BOS) filter cakes by butyric acid was investigated to compare the leaching behaviors of zinc and further to establish the correlation of the zinc leaching performances and the chemical compositions. The effects of acid concentration and the acid to solid (L/S) stoichiometric ratio were studied, with different optimal leaching conditions obtained. BOS-1 showed the lowest leachability with only less than 10% of zinc removed by 0.5 M acid concentration and 90% of the L/S stoichiometric ratio in 10 h. The best zinc selectivity was achieved with BOS-2 at 51.2% of zinc leaching efficiency, with only 0.47% of iron loss under optimal conditions of 1.5 M acid concentration and a 70% stoichiometric ratio. BOS-3 showed the highest leaching of zinc but the optimal conditions depend on the priority consideration. Using 1.0 M acid and 90% stoichiometric ratio for 10 h, the leaching efficiency of zinc was 84.6% with 20% iron loss. The filter cakes and the leaching residues were characterized. The results indicate different zinc and iron leaching behaviors, which were probably related to the storage conditions, zinc containing phases and the leaching parameters.