It has been more than a quarter century since lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery technology was first developed. The current Li-ion batteries represent a market of approximately $77 billion, and by 2030, it will reach $100 billion. The technological advancement of the portable electronics industry, however, along with vehicle electrification and grid energy storage necessitates more energy that can be easily supplied by the Li-ion battery due to the capacity limitations of its intrinsic materials. Fully-lithiated sulfur or lithium sulphide (Li 2 S) has been considered as promising cathode candidate that shows three times higher capacity (∼1166 mAh/g) than the current Li-ion technology. Many researchers put Li 2 S ahead of elemental sulfur as a cathode material (even though elemental sulfur has a higher theoretical capacity than Li 2 S), as it can be coupled with other anode materials and can form a Li-ion/Sulfur battery that reduces the safety concerns for using metallic lithium anode due to dendrite formation. Like sulfur, however, Li 2 S as a cathode material is also electronically and ionically insulating, and on top of that, its high activation potential and moisture sensitivity are the notable hindrances to making this cathode material marketable. This review paper comprehensively discusses the current progress towards addressing the aforementioned key challenges, as well as providing a detailed discussion of all attempts to develop different anodes and electrolytes for making Li 2 S cathode-based full cells.