This paper describes 45 brachiopod species (including 15 undetermined species) in 23 genera belonging to seven orders (Productida, Spiriferida, Athyridida, Orthida, Orthotetida, Rhynchonellida and Lingulida) from the Talung Formation (Changhsingian, latest Permian) of the marine deep-water facies of South China. Two new genera are proposed: Chaohochonetes and Parapygmochonetes; along with nine new species: Tethyochonetes rectangularis, Tethyochonetes? sinuata, Chaohochonetes triangusinuata, Neochonetes (Zhongyingia?) liaoi, Neochonetes (Huangichonetes?) wufengensis, Paryphella majiashanensis, Paryphella minuta, Parapygmochonetes parvulus and Meekella sparsiplicata. The taxonomic composition, significant morphological features and palaeoecological implications of this deep-water brachiopod fauna are summarized, and the fauna is compared with the Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB) mixed brachiopod fauna of South China. The Changhsingian (latest Permian) deep-water brachiopod fauna of South China shares some common features with the PTB mixed brachiopod fauna, especially in terms of taxonomic composition and certain apparent morphological adaptations. This commonality is interpreted to indicate a time and a broad marine environment of widespread low oxygen supply and/or reduced trophic resources during the end-Permian life crisis in South China.