Skip to main content
placeholder image

Degradability of creatinine under sewer conditions affects its potential to be used as biomarker in sewage epidemiology

Journal Article


Abstract


  • Creatinine was proposed to be used as a population normalising factor in sewage epidemiology but its stability in the sewer system has not been assessed. This study thus aimed to evaluate the fate of creatinine under different sewer conditions using laboratory sewer reactors. The results showed that while creatinine was stable in wastewater only, it degraded quickly in reactors with the presence of sewer biofilms. The degradation followed first order kinetics with significantly higher rate in rising main condition than in gravity sewer condition. Additionally, daily loads of creatinine were determined in wastewater samples collected on Census day from 10 wastewater treatment plants around Australia. The measured loads of creatinine from those samples were much lower than expected and did not correlate with the populations across the sampled treatment plants. The results suggested that creatinine may not be a suitable biomarker for population normalisation purpose in sewage epidemiology, especially in sewer catchment with high percentage of rising mains. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Authors


  •   Thai, Phong K. (external author)
  •   O'Brien, Jake (external author)
  •   Jiang, Guangming
  •   Gernjak, Wolfgang (external author)
  •   Yuan, Zhiguo (external author)
  •   Eaglesham, Geoff (external author)
  •   Mueller, Jochen F. (external author)

Publication Date


  • 2014

Citation


  • Thai, P. K., O'Brien, J., Jiang, G., Gernjak, W., Yuan, Z., Eaglesham, G. & Mueller, J. F. (2014). Degradability of creatinine under sewer conditions affects its potential to be used as biomarker in sewage epidemiology. Water Research, 55 272-279.

Scopus Eid


  • 2-s2.0-84895992354

Number Of Pages


  • 7

Start Page


  • 272

End Page


  • 279

Volume


  • 55

Place Of Publication


  • United Kingdom

Abstract


  • Creatinine was proposed to be used as a population normalising factor in sewage epidemiology but its stability in the sewer system has not been assessed. This study thus aimed to evaluate the fate of creatinine under different sewer conditions using laboratory sewer reactors. The results showed that while creatinine was stable in wastewater only, it degraded quickly in reactors with the presence of sewer biofilms. The degradation followed first order kinetics with significantly higher rate in rising main condition than in gravity sewer condition. Additionally, daily loads of creatinine were determined in wastewater samples collected on Census day from 10 wastewater treatment plants around Australia. The measured loads of creatinine from those samples were much lower than expected and did not correlate with the populations across the sampled treatment plants. The results suggested that creatinine may not be a suitable biomarker for population normalisation purpose in sewage epidemiology, especially in sewer catchment with high percentage of rising mains. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Authors


  •   Thai, Phong K. (external author)
  •   O'Brien, Jake (external author)
  •   Jiang, Guangming
  •   Gernjak, Wolfgang (external author)
  •   Yuan, Zhiguo (external author)
  •   Eaglesham, Geoff (external author)
  •   Mueller, Jochen F. (external author)

Publication Date


  • 2014

Citation


  • Thai, P. K., O'Brien, J., Jiang, G., Gernjak, W., Yuan, Z., Eaglesham, G. & Mueller, J. F. (2014). Degradability of creatinine under sewer conditions affects its potential to be used as biomarker in sewage epidemiology. Water Research, 55 272-279.

Scopus Eid


  • 2-s2.0-84895992354

Number Of Pages


  • 7

Start Page


  • 272

End Page


  • 279

Volume


  • 55

Place Of Publication


  • United Kingdom