Antipsychotics are the most important treatment for schizophrenia. However, antipsychotics, particularly olanzapine and clozapine, are associated with severe weight gain/obesity side-effects. Although numerous studies have been carried out to identify the exact mechanisms of antipsychotic-induced weight gain, it is still important to consider other pathways. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signaling and its associated inflammation pathway is one of the most important pathways involved in regulation of energy balance. In the present study, we examined the role of hypothalamic protein kinase R like endoplasmic reticulum kinase- eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (PERK-eIF2α) signaling and the inflammatory IkappaB kinase β- nuclear factor kappa B (IKKβ-NFκB) signaling pathway in olanzapine-induced weight gain in female rats. In this study, we found that olanzapine significantly activated PERK-eIF2α and IKKβ-NFκB signaling in SH-SY5Y cells in a dose-dependent manner. Olanzapine treatment for 8 days in rats was associated with activated PERK-eIF2α signaling and IKKβ-NFκB signaling in the hypothalamus, accompanied by increased food intake and weight gain. Co-treatment with an ER stress inhibitor, 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA), decreased olanzapine-induced food intake and weight gain in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Moreover, 4-PBA dose-dependently inhibited olanzapine-induced activated PERK-eIF2α and IKKβ-NFκB signaling in the hypothalamus. These results suggested that hypothalamic ER stress may play an important role in antipsychotic-induced weight gain.