The morphological variation of the sulcal development and shell outline in large Permian neospiriferine brachiopods including Fasciculatia Waterhouse, 2004 is investigated using geometric morphometrics. The sulcal tongues of spiriferide brachiopods can be, in a qualitative sense, categorized into three types according to the degree of their development: short sulcal tongue, long sulcal tongue and geniculated sulcal tongue. All three types have been noted within Fasciculatia striatoparadoxa, regardless of the nature of the substrate which they originally inhabited. To quantify its morphological variation both in sulcal development and shell outline, 51 brachiopod shells were scanned with a three-dimensional (3-D) surface imaging device, and their 3-D models were reconstructed. Using two landmarks and 58 semilandmarks designated on the surface of the reconstructed 3-D models, a landmark-based morphometric analysis was performed. Our result demonstrates a significant intraspecific variation of sulcal development in F. striatoparadoxa and its relatives. Local environmental factors, especially the intensity of ambient water flow, are invoked as the most likely cause for this intraspecific variation. Additionally, this study also shows that there are considerable interspecific distinctions in shell outline among Fasciculatia species, independent of the high variation in the sulcal development. The strong stability of overall shell outline at species level implies a decoupled morphological development between sulcal tongue and whole shell outline. The 3-D morphometric approach applied here demonstrates its great utility as a tool for quantifying and analysing the morphological variation of highly convex brachiopod shells.