Flooding is a major environmental problem around the world. The problem is expected to worsen with climate change, particularly in coastal megacities of developing nations (CMDN), where vulnerability to extreme weather events is high and flood management capacity is weak. This systematic literature review focuses on structural approaches to flood management in CMDN as most of these cities rely heavily on them. The review covers the last two decades, being the period 1998–2018. Results reveal key areas of research, which are discussed within two broad categories of focus (1) establishment of new flood control projects and (2) management of existing flood control infrastructure. Several directions are suggested to guide future research efforts. Keywords: coastal; megacities; developing nations; flood management; structural measures.