Four new chalcones (1, 10, 13, and 14), a new flavanone, (9), a new amide (8), and 19 known compounds were acquired from Melodorum siamensis. The structures were established by NMR and MS data analyses. Compounds 1 (er 1.4:1) and 2 (er 1.1:1) were scalemic and were resolved to yield (-)-1 and (+)-1 and (-)-2 and (+)-2, respectively. The absolute configurations of these compounds were determined from experimental and calculated ECD data. The structures and configurations of (-)-2 and (+)-8 were identified by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Compound 11 showed nuclear factor-κB inhibitory effects (IC 50 = 9 μM) in a pancreatic β cell line (MIN-6 cells).