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Silicon as a ubiquitous contaminant in graphene derivatives with significant impact on device performance

Journal Article


Abstract


  • Silicon-based impurities are ubiquitous in natural graphite. However, their role as a contaminant in exfoliated graphene and their influence on devices have been overlooked. Herein atomic resolution microscopy is used to highlight the existence of silicon-based contamination on various solution-processed graphene. We found these impurities are extremely persistent and thus utilising high purity graphite as a precursor is the only route to produce silicon-free graphene. These impurities are found to hamper the effective utilisation of graphene in whereby surface area is of paramount importance. When non-contaminated graphene is used to fabricate supercapacitor microelectrodes, a capacitance value closest to the predicted theoretical capacitance for graphene is obtained. We also demonstrate a versatile humidity sensor made from pure graphene oxide which achieves the highest sensitivity and the lowest limit of detection ever reported. Our findings constitute a vital milestone to achieve commercially viable and high performance graphene-based devices.

Authors


  •   Jalili, Rouhollah (external author)
  •   Esrafilzadeh, Dorna (external author)
  •   Aboutalebi, Seyed Hamed (external author)
  •   Sabri, Ylias M. (external author)
  •   Kandjani, Ahmad E. (external author)
  •   Bhargava, Suresh K. (external author)
  •   Della Gaspera, Enrico (external author)
  •   Gengenbach, Thomas R. (external author)
  •   Walker, Ashley J. (external author)
  •   Chao, Yunfeng (external author)
  •   Wang, Caiyun
  •   Alimadadi, Hossein (external author)
  •   Mitchell, David R. G.
  •   Officer, David L.
  •   MacFarlane, Douglas R. (external author)
  •   Wallace, Gordon G.

Publication Date


  • 2018

Citation


  • Jalili, R., Esrafilzadeh, D., Aboutalebi, S., Sabri, Y. M., Kandjani, A. E., Bhargava, S. K., Della Gaspera, E., Gengenbach, T. R., Walker, A., Chao, Y., Wang, C., Alimadadi, H., Mitchell, D. R. G., Officer, D. L., MacFarlane, D. R. & Wallace, G. G. (2018). Silicon as a ubiquitous contaminant in graphene derivatives with significant impact on device performance. Nature Communications, 9 (1), 5070-1-5070-13.

Scopus Eid


  • 2-s2.0-85057522765

Start Page


  • 5070-1

End Page


  • 5070-13

Volume


  • 9

Issue


  • 1

Place Of Publication


  • United Kingdom

Abstract


  • Silicon-based impurities are ubiquitous in natural graphite. However, their role as a contaminant in exfoliated graphene and their influence on devices have been overlooked. Herein atomic resolution microscopy is used to highlight the existence of silicon-based contamination on various solution-processed graphene. We found these impurities are extremely persistent and thus utilising high purity graphite as a precursor is the only route to produce silicon-free graphene. These impurities are found to hamper the effective utilisation of graphene in whereby surface area is of paramount importance. When non-contaminated graphene is used to fabricate supercapacitor microelectrodes, a capacitance value closest to the predicted theoretical capacitance for graphene is obtained. We also demonstrate a versatile humidity sensor made from pure graphene oxide which achieves the highest sensitivity and the lowest limit of detection ever reported. Our findings constitute a vital milestone to achieve commercially viable and high performance graphene-based devices.

Authors


  •   Jalili, Rouhollah (external author)
  •   Esrafilzadeh, Dorna (external author)
  •   Aboutalebi, Seyed Hamed (external author)
  •   Sabri, Ylias M. (external author)
  •   Kandjani, Ahmad E. (external author)
  •   Bhargava, Suresh K. (external author)
  •   Della Gaspera, Enrico (external author)
  •   Gengenbach, Thomas R. (external author)
  •   Walker, Ashley J. (external author)
  •   Chao, Yunfeng (external author)
  •   Wang, Caiyun
  •   Alimadadi, Hossein (external author)
  •   Mitchell, David R. G.
  •   Officer, David L.
  •   MacFarlane, Douglas R. (external author)
  •   Wallace, Gordon G.

Publication Date


  • 2018

Citation


  • Jalili, R., Esrafilzadeh, D., Aboutalebi, S., Sabri, Y. M., Kandjani, A. E., Bhargava, S. K., Della Gaspera, E., Gengenbach, T. R., Walker, A., Chao, Y., Wang, C., Alimadadi, H., Mitchell, D. R. G., Officer, D. L., MacFarlane, D. R. & Wallace, G. G. (2018). Silicon as a ubiquitous contaminant in graphene derivatives with significant impact on device performance. Nature Communications, 9 (1), 5070-1-5070-13.

Scopus Eid


  • 2-s2.0-85057522765

Start Page


  • 5070-1

End Page


  • 5070-13

Volume


  • 9

Issue


  • 1

Place Of Publication


  • United Kingdom