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Neurobiology of addiction

Journal Article


Abstract


  • Addiction is a chronic, relapsing disorder characterized by craving, compulsive drug use, and loss of control over limiting drug intake. Understanding of biological basis of addiction, has advanced significantly over the last 3 decades in part due to major progress in genetics and neuroscience research and to the development of new technologies. This presentation will update the neurobiological processes through which biological and socio-cultural factors contribute to resilience against or vulnerability for drug use and addiction. We will also review the recent understanding of the aberrant, impulsive, and compulsive behaviours that are characteristic of addiction in addition to findings on the desensitization of reward circuits, which dampens the ability to feel pleasure and the motivation to pursue everyday activities; the increasing strength of conditioned responses and stress reactivity, which results in increased cravings for alcohol and other 54 drugs and negative emotions when these cravings are not sated; and the weakening of the brain regions involved in executive functions such as decision making, inhibitory control, and self-regulation that leads to repeated relapse. These advances in our understanding of brain development and of the role of genes and environment on brain structure and function have built a foundation on which to develop more effective tools to prevent and treat substance use disorder.

Publication Date


  • 2018

Citation


  • Pai, N. Brahmavar. (2018). Neurobiology of addiction. Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 62 (5), 53-54. Manipal, India Proceedings of 64th Annual National Conference of Association of Pysiologists & Pharmacologies of India APPICON 2018

Number Of Pages


  • 1

Start Page


  • 53

End Page


  • 54

Volume


  • 62

Issue


  • 5

Place Of Publication


  • Pondicherry, India

Abstract


  • Addiction is a chronic, relapsing disorder characterized by craving, compulsive drug use, and loss of control over limiting drug intake. Understanding of biological basis of addiction, has advanced significantly over the last 3 decades in part due to major progress in genetics and neuroscience research and to the development of new technologies. This presentation will update the neurobiological processes through which biological and socio-cultural factors contribute to resilience against or vulnerability for drug use and addiction. We will also review the recent understanding of the aberrant, impulsive, and compulsive behaviours that are characteristic of addiction in addition to findings on the desensitization of reward circuits, which dampens the ability to feel pleasure and the motivation to pursue everyday activities; the increasing strength of conditioned responses and stress reactivity, which results in increased cravings for alcohol and other 54 drugs and negative emotions when these cravings are not sated; and the weakening of the brain regions involved in executive functions such as decision making, inhibitory control, and self-regulation that leads to repeated relapse. These advances in our understanding of brain development and of the role of genes and environment on brain structure and function have built a foundation on which to develop more effective tools to prevent and treat substance use disorder.

Publication Date


  • 2018

Citation


  • Pai, N. Brahmavar. (2018). Neurobiology of addiction. Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 62 (5), 53-54. Manipal, India Proceedings of 64th Annual National Conference of Association of Pysiologists & Pharmacologies of India APPICON 2018

Number Of Pages


  • 1

Start Page


  • 53

End Page


  • 54

Volume


  • 62

Issue


  • 5

Place Of Publication


  • Pondicherry, India