Eight previously undescribed compounds, including four alkaloids and five styryllactones together with 36 known compounds were isolated from the twig and leaf extracts of Goniothalamus cheliensis. Their structures were elucidated by extensive analysis of their spectroscopic data. The absolute configuration of (−)-(4S,5S,6R,7S,8S)-goniochelienlactone and (−)-(4S,5S,6R,7S,8S)-7-acetylgoniochelienlactone were established from single crystal X-ray analysis using Cu Kα radiation. The absolute configurations of the other related compounds were identified by comparisons of their ECD spectra with those of related known compounds. Most of the isolated compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxicities against human colorectal cancer cells (HCT-116). Griffithazanone A was the most potent with an IC50 value of 2.39 μM.