Skip to main content
placeholder image

Associations between gross motor skills and cognitive development in Australian toddlers

Journal Article


Abstract


  • Purpose: The early years of life are critical for motor and cognitive

    development. More research is needed to better understand the associations

    between the control and development of motor and cognitive tasks. This

    study aimed to examine the association between gross motor skill development

    and cognitive development in children aged 11 to 29months.Methods:

    This cross-sectional study involved 335 toddlers (aged 19.80 ± 4.08 months,

    53.7%boys) recruited from30 Early Childhood Education andCare services

    in NSW, Australia. Gross motor skills were assessed using the Peabody

    Developmental Motor Scales 2nd Edition (PDMS-2). The gross motor

    quotient (GMQ) and subtest standard scores were used for analyses.

    Cognitive development was assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant and

    Toddler development – 3rd edition (Bayley-III). The standard scorewas used

    in the analyses. A one-way ANCOVA was conducted to assess associations

    between gross motor skills and cognition controlling for childcare center,

    sex, age, body mass index and socioeconomic status. Results: The average

    standard score for cognitive development was 11.45 ± 3.03. For gross

    motor skills, the average GMQ score was 96.41 ± 9.84. There was a

    significant effect of gross motor skills on cognition, F(2, 260) = 12.245,

    p < 0.001. Both locomotion and object manipulation had a significant effect

    on cognition, F(2, 266) = 14.607, p < 0.001 and, F(2, 265)=9.039, p < 0.001

    respectively. Conclusions:Grossmotor skills and cognition are associated in

    this sample of toddlers. Results reinforce the need for early commencement

    of gross motor skill promotion as this might be important for cognitive

    development in the early years.

Authors


  •   Veldman, Sanne L.C. (external author)
  •   Santos, Rute M. (external author)
  •   Jones, Rachel A.
  •   De Sousa Rodrigues de Sa, Eduarda Manuela (external author)
  •   Okely, Anthony D.

Publication Date


  • 2018

Citation


  • Veldman, S. L.C., Santos, R., Jones, R. A., De Sousa-Sa, E. & Okely, A. D. (2018). Associations between gross motor skills and cognitive development in Australian toddlers. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 40 S38-S38.

Start Page


  • S38

End Page


  • S38

Volume


  • 40

Place Of Publication


  • United States

Abstract


  • Purpose: The early years of life are critical for motor and cognitive

    development. More research is needed to better understand the associations

    between the control and development of motor and cognitive tasks. This

    study aimed to examine the association between gross motor skill development

    and cognitive development in children aged 11 to 29months.Methods:

    This cross-sectional study involved 335 toddlers (aged 19.80 ± 4.08 months,

    53.7%boys) recruited from30 Early Childhood Education andCare services

    in NSW, Australia. Gross motor skills were assessed using the Peabody

    Developmental Motor Scales 2nd Edition (PDMS-2). The gross motor

    quotient (GMQ) and subtest standard scores were used for analyses.

    Cognitive development was assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant and

    Toddler development – 3rd edition (Bayley-III). The standard scorewas used

    in the analyses. A one-way ANCOVA was conducted to assess associations

    between gross motor skills and cognition controlling for childcare center,

    sex, age, body mass index and socioeconomic status. Results: The average

    standard score for cognitive development was 11.45 ± 3.03. For gross

    motor skills, the average GMQ score was 96.41 ± 9.84. There was a

    significant effect of gross motor skills on cognition, F(2, 260) = 12.245,

    p < 0.001. Both locomotion and object manipulation had a significant effect

    on cognition, F(2, 266) = 14.607, p < 0.001 and, F(2, 265)=9.039, p < 0.001

    respectively. Conclusions:Grossmotor skills and cognition are associated in

    this sample of toddlers. Results reinforce the need for early commencement

    of gross motor skill promotion as this might be important for cognitive

    development in the early years.

Authors


  •   Veldman, Sanne L.C. (external author)
  •   Santos, Rute M. (external author)
  •   Jones, Rachel A.
  •   De Sousa Rodrigues de Sa, Eduarda Manuela (external author)
  •   Okely, Anthony D.

Publication Date


  • 2018

Citation


  • Veldman, S. L.C., Santos, R., Jones, R. A., De Sousa-Sa, E. & Okely, A. D. (2018). Associations between gross motor skills and cognitive development in Australian toddlers. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 40 S38-S38.

Start Page


  • S38

End Page


  • S38

Volume


  • 40

Place Of Publication


  • United States