A new series of carbon-based films doped with graphene oxide and cobalt (G-Co/a-C:H films) were successfully prepared on Si substrate via one-step electrochemical deposition of methanol as the carbon source and graphene oxide/cobalt as the dopant. G-Co/a-C:H films were fabricated at various graphene oxide concentration for comparative experiments. It can be found that the graphene oxide and cobalt were well embedded in amorphous carbon matrix to form superhydrophobic G-Co/a-C:H film at the doping GO concentration of 0.007 mg/mL, which was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was noted that the superhydrophobicity of the resulting surface derives from its rough surface with hierarchical micro-nanostructures and the presence of the low-surface-energy GO components on it. The hierarchical micro-nanostructures are attributed to the corporate joint of GO and cobalt to form the multilevel nanoscale composite interface. Specially, the as-fabricated superhydrophobic G-Co/a-C:H film could exhibit excellent self-cleaning ability and corrosion resistance, revealed by the self-cleaning and corrosion tests.