2D nanomaterials, including graphene, transition metal oxide (TMO) nanosheets, transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) nanosheets, etc., have offered an appealing and unprecedented opportunity for the development of high-performance electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Although significant progress has been made on 2D nanomaterials for LIB applications in the recent years, some major challenges still exist for the direct use of these sheet-like nanomaterials, such as their serious self-agglomerating tendency during electrode fabrication and low conductivity as well as the large volume changes over repeated charging–discharging cycles for most TMOs/TMDs, which have resulted in large irreversible capacity, low initial Coulombic efficiency and fast capacity fading. To address these issues, considerable progress has been made in the exploitation of 2D nanosheets for enhanced lithium storage. In this review, we intend to summarize the recent progress on the strategies for enhancing the lithium-storage performance of 2D nanomaterials, including hybridization with conductive materials, surface/edge functionalization and structural optimization. These strategies for manipulating the structures and properties of 2D nanomaterials are expected to meet the grand challenges for advanced nanomaterials in clean energy applications and thus provide access to exciting materials for achieving high-performance next-generation energy-storage devices.