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Discovery of a Voltage-Stimulated Heartbeat Effect in Droplets of Liquid Gallium

Journal Article


Abstract


  • Chemomechanical effects are known to initiate fluid oscillations in certain liquid metals; however, they

    typically produce an irregular motion that is difficult to deactivate or control. Here we show that stimulating

    liquid gallium with electrochemistry can cause a metal drop to exhibit a heart beating effect by shape

    shifting at a telltale frequency. Unlike the effects reported in the past for mercury, the symmetry-breaking

    forces generated by using gallium propel the drop several millimeters with velocities of the order of 1 cm

    per second. We demonstrate pulsating dynamics between 0 and 610 beats per minute for 50–150 μL

    droplets in a NaOH electrolyte at 34 °C. The underlying mechanism is a self-regulating cycle initiated by

    fast electrochemical oxidation that adjusts the drop’s surface tension and causes a transformation from

    spherical to pancake form, followed by detachment from the circular electrode. As the beat frequency can

    be activated and controlled using a dc voltage, the electrochemical mechanism opens the way for fluidbased

    timers and actuators

Authors


  •   Yu, Zhenwei (external author)
  •   Chen, Yuchen (external author)
  •   Yun, Fei (external author)
  •   Cortie, David L.
  •   Jiang, Lei (external author)
  •   Wang, Xiaolin

Publication Date


  • 2018

Citation


  • Yu, Z., Chen, Y., Yun, F. F., Cortie, D., Jiang, L. & Wang, X. (2018). Discovery of a Voltage-Stimulated Heartbeat Effect in Droplets of Liquid Gallium. Physical Review Letters, 121 (2), 024302-1-024302-5.

Scopus Eid


  • 2-s2.0-85049939587

Start Page


  • 024302-1

End Page


  • 024302-5

Volume


  • 121

Issue


  • 2

Place Of Publication


  • United States

Abstract


  • Chemomechanical effects are known to initiate fluid oscillations in certain liquid metals; however, they

    typically produce an irregular motion that is difficult to deactivate or control. Here we show that stimulating

    liquid gallium with electrochemistry can cause a metal drop to exhibit a heart beating effect by shape

    shifting at a telltale frequency. Unlike the effects reported in the past for mercury, the symmetry-breaking

    forces generated by using gallium propel the drop several millimeters with velocities of the order of 1 cm

    per second. We demonstrate pulsating dynamics between 0 and 610 beats per minute for 50–150 μL

    droplets in a NaOH electrolyte at 34 °C. The underlying mechanism is a self-regulating cycle initiated by

    fast electrochemical oxidation that adjusts the drop’s surface tension and causes a transformation from

    spherical to pancake form, followed by detachment from the circular electrode. As the beat frequency can

    be activated and controlled using a dc voltage, the electrochemical mechanism opens the way for fluidbased

    timers and actuators

Authors


  •   Yu, Zhenwei (external author)
  •   Chen, Yuchen (external author)
  •   Yun, Fei (external author)
  •   Cortie, David L.
  •   Jiang, Lei (external author)
  •   Wang, Xiaolin

Publication Date


  • 2018

Citation


  • Yu, Z., Chen, Y., Yun, F. F., Cortie, D., Jiang, L. & Wang, X. (2018). Discovery of a Voltage-Stimulated Heartbeat Effect in Droplets of Liquid Gallium. Physical Review Letters, 121 (2), 024302-1-024302-5.

Scopus Eid


  • 2-s2.0-85049939587

Start Page


  • 024302-1

End Page


  • 024302-5

Volume


  • 121

Issue


  • 2

Place Of Publication


  • United States