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Transnational Care Work and the ‘Care Crisis’

Chapter


Abstract


  • Over the last several decades, a mounting crisis of care on a global scale has become an urgent concern (Bakker and Gill 2003a; Benerfa 2008; Isaksen et al. 2008; Romero et al. 2014). One dimension of this crisis is the rise of a 'care deficit' (Hochschild 1995) in most developed countries, which has been fuelled by the so-called 'feminization' of the workforce, the demographics of ageing societies and the restructuring of states' welfare programmes. The intensified neoliberal reforms of the labour market and social policy since the 1970s have promoted and indeed depended on the progressive incorporation of women into the workforce. For example, in the US, while women accounted for 46.8 per cent of its entire workers in 2014, the labour force participation rates of mothers with children under eighteen rose from 47.4 per cent in 1975 to 70.l per cent in 2014 (US Department of Labor 2015). In Japan, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW 2015) has warned that given a rapidly ageing population and declining birth rates, the country will face an acute shortage of care labour in the coming years. It projects that the country will need 2.5J million care workers in 2025, compared with the 1.77 million employed in 2013. In addition to changing labour patterns, the escalating need for affordable paid care in the developed world has been fuelled by the withdrawal of states from welfare provisioning and a concomitant return of care work to the household where it 'naturally' belongs. This has been steered by a neoliberal order that is based on the premises of possessive individualism and unfettered markets (Bakker 2003, 2007; Brodie 2003).1

Publication Date


  • 2018

Citation


  • Onuki, H. (2018). Transnational Care Work and the ‘Care Crisis’. In J. Elias & A. Roberts (Eds.), Handbook of the International Political Economy of Gender (pp. 365-378). Glos, UK: Edward Elgar.

International Standard Book Number (isbn) 13


  • 9781783478835

Book Title


  • Handbook of the International Political Economy of Gender

Start Page


  • 365

End Page


  • 378

Place Of Publication


  • Glos, UK

Abstract


  • Over the last several decades, a mounting crisis of care on a global scale has become an urgent concern (Bakker and Gill 2003a; Benerfa 2008; Isaksen et al. 2008; Romero et al. 2014). One dimension of this crisis is the rise of a 'care deficit' (Hochschild 1995) in most developed countries, which has been fuelled by the so-called 'feminization' of the workforce, the demographics of ageing societies and the restructuring of states' welfare programmes. The intensified neoliberal reforms of the labour market and social policy since the 1970s have promoted and indeed depended on the progressive incorporation of women into the workforce. For example, in the US, while women accounted for 46.8 per cent of its entire workers in 2014, the labour force participation rates of mothers with children under eighteen rose from 47.4 per cent in 1975 to 70.l per cent in 2014 (US Department of Labor 2015). In Japan, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW 2015) has warned that given a rapidly ageing population and declining birth rates, the country will face an acute shortage of care labour in the coming years. It projects that the country will need 2.5J million care workers in 2025, compared with the 1.77 million employed in 2013. In addition to changing labour patterns, the escalating need for affordable paid care in the developed world has been fuelled by the withdrawal of states from welfare provisioning and a concomitant return of care work to the household where it 'naturally' belongs. This has been steered by a neoliberal order that is based on the premises of possessive individualism and unfettered markets (Bakker 2003, 2007; Brodie 2003).1

Publication Date


  • 2018

Citation


  • Onuki, H. (2018). Transnational Care Work and the ‘Care Crisis’. In J. Elias & A. Roberts (Eds.), Handbook of the International Political Economy of Gender (pp. 365-378). Glos, UK: Edward Elgar.

International Standard Book Number (isbn) 13


  • 9781783478835

Book Title


  • Handbook of the International Political Economy of Gender

Start Page


  • 365

End Page


  • 378

Place Of Publication


  • Glos, UK