Recently, research on particle migration in non-Newtonian viscoelastic fluids has gained considerable attention. In a viscoelastic fluid, three dimensional (3D) particle focusing can be easily realized in simple channels without the need for any external force fields or complex microchannel structures compared with that in a Newtonian fluid. Due to its promising properties for particle precise focusing and manipulation, this field has been developed rapidly, and research on the field has been shifted from fundamentals to applications. This review will elaborate the recent progress of particle migration in viscoelastic fluids, especially on the aspect of applications. The hydrodynamic forces on the micro/nano particles in viscoelastic fluids are discussed. Next, we elaborate the basic particle migration in viscoelasticity-dominant fluids and elasto-inertial fluids in straight channels. After that, a comprehensive review on the applications of viscoelasticity-induced particle migration (particle separation, cell deformability measurement and alignment, particle solution exchange, rheometry-on-a-chip and others) is presented; finally, we thrash out some perspectives on the future directions of particle migration in viscoelastic fluids.