A method to synthesize molybdenum carbides has been developed based on microwave plasma treatment with methane and hydrogen mixed gases, using a microwave-plasma chemical vapor deposition device. The device framework and its mechanism are described in detail. Two-dimensional α-Mo 2 C has been directly synthesized by a plate-to-plate substrate holder structure with a microwave power of 920 W and a partial pressure of 20 kPa. In-situ optical emission spectroscopy was used to measure the radical types in the plasma ball during glow discharge. The as-grown α-Mo 2 C samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy to determine their phases, purity and chemical groups. The superconducting transition temperature was measured, and the transition temperatures of the relevant phases are discussed in detail. The results confirmed that this method is an efficient way to obtain molybdenum carbides and inspire new research interest in transition metal carbides, which have many intrinsic local properties and applications.