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Promoting ball skills in preschool-age girls

Journal Article


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Abstract


  • Objectives: Evidence supports that girls are less proficient than boys at performing ball skills. This study

    examined the immediate and long-term effects of a ball skill intervention on preschool-age girls’ ball

    skill performance.

    Design: Randomized controlled trial.

    Methods: Girls (Mage = 47.24 ± 7.38 months) were randomly assigned to a high autonomy, mastery-based

    9-week motor skill intervention (the Children’s Health Activity Motor Program; CHAMP, 540 min; n = 38)

    or a control group (free-play; n = 16). Ball skill proficiency was assessed at pretest, posttest, and retention

    test(after 9 weeks)using the object control subscale ofthe Test of GrossMotor Development – 2ndEdition.

    Treatment efficacy was examined using linear mixed models. Two models were fit: one for short-term

    changes (pretest to posttest) and one for long-term changes (pretest to retention).

    Results: Linear mixed models revealed a significantly time*treatment interaction for both models. Post

    hoc analysis confirmed that girls in CHAMP experienced significant gains in ball skills from pretest to

    posttest (p < .001) and pretest to retention (p < .001). Moreover, girls in CHAMP were no different from

    the control group at pretest(p > .05) but had significantly higher ball skills scores at both posttest(p < .001)

    and retention (p < .001).

    Conclusions: This study demonstrates the positive effects of a ball skill intervention (i.e., CHAMP) on

    improving girls’ ball skills both short- and long-term. Findings suggest that early childhood interventions

    that focus on the development of ball skills in young girls might be an avenue to improve girls’ ball skill

    performance.

Authors


  •   Veldman, Sanne L.C. (external author)
  •   Palmer, Kara K. (external author)
  •   Okely, Anthony D.
  •   Robinson, Leah (external author)

Publication Date


  • 2017

Citation


  • Veldman, S. L.C., Palmer, K. K., Okely, A. D. & Robinson, L. E. (2017). Promoting ball skills in preschool-age girls. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 20 (1), 50-54.

Scopus Eid


  • 2-s2.0-84971621841

Ro Full-text Url


  • http://ro.uow.edu.au/context/sspapers/article/4538/type/native/viewcontent

Ro Metadata Url


  • http://ro.uow.edu.au/sspapers/3531

Has Global Citation Frequency


Number Of Pages


  • 4

Start Page


  • 50

End Page


  • 54

Volume


  • 20

Issue


  • 1

Place Of Publication


  • Australia

Abstract


  • Objectives: Evidence supports that girls are less proficient than boys at performing ball skills. This study

    examined the immediate and long-term effects of a ball skill intervention on preschool-age girls’ ball

    skill performance.

    Design: Randomized controlled trial.

    Methods: Girls (Mage = 47.24 ± 7.38 months) were randomly assigned to a high autonomy, mastery-based

    9-week motor skill intervention (the Children’s Health Activity Motor Program; CHAMP, 540 min; n = 38)

    or a control group (free-play; n = 16). Ball skill proficiency was assessed at pretest, posttest, and retention

    test(after 9 weeks)using the object control subscale ofthe Test of GrossMotor Development – 2ndEdition.

    Treatment efficacy was examined using linear mixed models. Two models were fit: one for short-term

    changes (pretest to posttest) and one for long-term changes (pretest to retention).

    Results: Linear mixed models revealed a significantly time*treatment interaction for both models. Post

    hoc analysis confirmed that girls in CHAMP experienced significant gains in ball skills from pretest to

    posttest (p < .001) and pretest to retention (p < .001). Moreover, girls in CHAMP were no different from

    the control group at pretest(p > .05) but had significantly higher ball skills scores at both posttest(p < .001)

    and retention (p < .001).

    Conclusions: This study demonstrates the positive effects of a ball skill intervention (i.e., CHAMP) on

    improving girls’ ball skills both short- and long-term. Findings suggest that early childhood interventions

    that focus on the development of ball skills in young girls might be an avenue to improve girls’ ball skill

    performance.

Authors


  •   Veldman, Sanne L.C. (external author)
  •   Palmer, Kara K. (external author)
  •   Okely, Anthony D.
  •   Robinson, Leah (external author)

Publication Date


  • 2017

Citation


  • Veldman, S. L.C., Palmer, K. K., Okely, A. D. & Robinson, L. E. (2017). Promoting ball skills in preschool-age girls. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 20 (1), 50-54.

Scopus Eid


  • 2-s2.0-84971621841

Ro Full-text Url


  • http://ro.uow.edu.au/context/sspapers/article/4538/type/native/viewcontent

Ro Metadata Url


  • http://ro.uow.edu.au/sspapers/3531

Has Global Citation Frequency


Number Of Pages


  • 4

Start Page


  • 50

End Page


  • 54

Volume


  • 20

Issue


  • 1

Place Of Publication


  • Australia