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Sleep EEG alterations: Effects of pulsed magnetic fields versus pulse-modulated radio frequency electromagnetic fields

Journal Article


Abstract


  • Studies have repeatedly shown that electroencephalographic power

    during sleep is enhanced in the spindle frequency range following radio

    frequency electromagnetic field exposures pulse-modulated with fundamental

    frequency components of 2, 8, 14 or 217 Hz and combinations of

    these. However, signals used in previous studies also had significant

    harmonic components above 20 Hz. The current study aimed: (i) to

    determine if modulation components above 20 Hz, in combination with

    radio frequency, are necessary to alter the electroencephalogram; and

    (ii) to test the demodulation hypothesis, if the same effects occur after

    magnetic field exposure with the same pulse sequence used in the pulsemodulated

    radio frequency exposure. In a randomized double-blind

    crossover design, 25 young healthy men were exposed at weekly

    intervals to three different conditions for 30 min before sleep. Cognitive

    tasks were also performed during exposure. The conditions were a 2-Hz

    pulse-modulated radio frequency field, a 2-Hz pulsed magnetic field, and

    sham. Radio frequency exposure increased electroencephalogram

    power in the spindle frequency range. Furthermore, delta and theta

    activity (non-rapid eye movement sleep), and alpha and delta activity

    (rapid eye movement sleep) were affected following both exposure

    conditions. No effect on sleep architecture and no clear impact of

    exposure on cognition was observed. These results demonstrate that

    both pulse-modulated radio frequency and pulsed magnetic fields affect

    brain physiology, and the presence of significant frequency components

    above 20 Hz are not fundamental for these effects to occur. Because

    responses were not identical for all exposures, the study does not

    support the hypothesis that effects of radio frequency exposure are

    based on demodulation of the signal only.

Authors


  •   Schmid, M. R. (external author)
  •   Murbach, M. (external author)
  •   Lustenberger, Caroline (external author)
  •   Maire, Micheline (external author)
  •   Kuster, N. (external author)
  •   Achermann, Peter (external author)
  •   Loughran, Sarah P. (external author)

Publication Date


  • 2012

Citation


  • Schmid, M. R., Murbach, M., Lustenberger, C., Maire, M., Kuster, N., Achermann, P. & Loughran, S. P. (2012). Sleep EEG alterations: Effects of pulsed magnetic fields versus pulse-modulated radio frequency electromagnetic fields. Journal of Sleep Research, 21 (6), 620-629.

Scopus Eid


  • 2-s2.0-84870241935

Has Global Citation Frequency


Number Of Pages


  • 9

Start Page


  • 620

End Page


  • 629

Volume


  • 21

Issue


  • 6

Place Of Publication


  • United Kingdom

Abstract


  • Studies have repeatedly shown that electroencephalographic power

    during sleep is enhanced in the spindle frequency range following radio

    frequency electromagnetic field exposures pulse-modulated with fundamental

    frequency components of 2, 8, 14 or 217 Hz and combinations of

    these. However, signals used in previous studies also had significant

    harmonic components above 20 Hz. The current study aimed: (i) to

    determine if modulation components above 20 Hz, in combination with

    radio frequency, are necessary to alter the electroencephalogram; and

    (ii) to test the demodulation hypothesis, if the same effects occur after

    magnetic field exposure with the same pulse sequence used in the pulsemodulated

    radio frequency exposure. In a randomized double-blind

    crossover design, 25 young healthy men were exposed at weekly

    intervals to three different conditions for 30 min before sleep. Cognitive

    tasks were also performed during exposure. The conditions were a 2-Hz

    pulse-modulated radio frequency field, a 2-Hz pulsed magnetic field, and

    sham. Radio frequency exposure increased electroencephalogram

    power in the spindle frequency range. Furthermore, delta and theta

    activity (non-rapid eye movement sleep), and alpha and delta activity

    (rapid eye movement sleep) were affected following both exposure

    conditions. No effect on sleep architecture and no clear impact of

    exposure on cognition was observed. These results demonstrate that

    both pulse-modulated radio frequency and pulsed magnetic fields affect

    brain physiology, and the presence of significant frequency components

    above 20 Hz are not fundamental for these effects to occur. Because

    responses were not identical for all exposures, the study does not

    support the hypothesis that effects of radio frequency exposure are

    based on demodulation of the signal only.

Authors


  •   Schmid, M. R. (external author)
  •   Murbach, M. (external author)
  •   Lustenberger, Caroline (external author)
  •   Maire, Micheline (external author)
  •   Kuster, N. (external author)
  •   Achermann, Peter (external author)
  •   Loughran, Sarah P. (external author)

Publication Date


  • 2012

Citation


  • Schmid, M. R., Murbach, M., Lustenberger, C., Maire, M., Kuster, N., Achermann, P. & Loughran, S. P. (2012). Sleep EEG alterations: Effects of pulsed magnetic fields versus pulse-modulated radio frequency electromagnetic fields. Journal of Sleep Research, 21 (6), 620-629.

Scopus Eid


  • 2-s2.0-84870241935

Has Global Citation Frequency


Number Of Pages


  • 9

Start Page


  • 620

End Page


  • 629

Volume


  • 21

Issue


  • 6

Place Of Publication


  • United Kingdom