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Sleep EEG alterations: Effects of different pulse-modulated radio frequency electromagnetic fields

Journal Article


Abstract


  • Previous studies have observed increases in electroencephalographic

    power during sleep in the spindle frequency range (approximately 11–

    15 Hz) after exposure to mobile phone-like radio frequency electromagnetic

    fields (RF EMF). Results also suggest that pulse modulation of the

    signal is crucial to induce these effects. Nevertheless, it remains unclear

    which specific elements of the field are responsible for the observed

    changes. We investigated whether pulse-modulation frequency components

    in the range of sleep spindles may be involved in mediating these

    effects. Thirty young healthy men were exposed, at weekly intervals, to

    three different conditions for 30 min directly prior to an 8-h sleep period.

    Exposure consisted of a 900-MHz RF EMF, pulse modulated at 14 Hz or

    217 Hz, and a sham control condition. Both active conditions had a peak

    spatial specific absorption rate of 2 W kg)1. During exposure subjects

    performed three different cognitive tasks (measuring attention, reaction

    speed and working memory), which were presented in a fixed order.

    Electroencephalographic power in the spindle frequency range was

    increased during non-rapid eye movement sleep (2nd episode) following

    the 14-Hz pulse-modulated condition. A similar but non-significant

    increase was also observed following the 217-Hz pulse-modulated

    condition. Importantly, this exposure-induced effect showed considerable

    individual variability. Regarding cognitive performance, no clear exposure-

    related effects were seen. Consistent with previous findings, our

    results provide further evidence that pulse-modulated RF EMF alter brain

    physiology, although the time-course of the effect remains variable

    across studies. Additionally, we demonstrated that modulation frequency

    components within a physiological range may be sufficient to induce

    these effects.

Authors


  •   Schmid, M. R. (external author)
  •   Loughran, Sarah P. (external author)
  •   Regel, Sabine J. (external author)
  •   Murbach, M. (external author)
  •   Grunauer, Aleksandra Bratic. (external author)
  •   Rusterholz, Thomas (external author)
  •   Bersagliere, Alessia (external author)
  •   Kuster, N. (external author)
  •   Achermann, Peter (external author)

Publication Date


  • 2012

Citation


  • Schmid, M. R., Loughran, S. P., Regel, S. J., Murbach, M., Grunauer, A. Bratic., Rusterholz, T., Bersagliere, A., Kuster, N. & Achermann, P. (2012). Sleep EEG alterations: Effects of different pulse-modulated radio frequency electromagnetic fields. Journal of Sleep Research, 21 (1), 50-58.

Scopus Eid


  • 2-s2.0-84856120430

Has Global Citation Frequency


Number Of Pages


  • 8

Start Page


  • 50

End Page


  • 58

Volume


  • 21

Issue


  • 1

Place Of Publication


  • United Kingdom

Abstract


  • Previous studies have observed increases in electroencephalographic

    power during sleep in the spindle frequency range (approximately 11–

    15 Hz) after exposure to mobile phone-like radio frequency electromagnetic

    fields (RF EMF). Results also suggest that pulse modulation of the

    signal is crucial to induce these effects. Nevertheless, it remains unclear

    which specific elements of the field are responsible for the observed

    changes. We investigated whether pulse-modulation frequency components

    in the range of sleep spindles may be involved in mediating these

    effects. Thirty young healthy men were exposed, at weekly intervals, to

    three different conditions for 30 min directly prior to an 8-h sleep period.

    Exposure consisted of a 900-MHz RF EMF, pulse modulated at 14 Hz or

    217 Hz, and a sham control condition. Both active conditions had a peak

    spatial specific absorption rate of 2 W kg)1. During exposure subjects

    performed three different cognitive tasks (measuring attention, reaction

    speed and working memory), which were presented in a fixed order.

    Electroencephalographic power in the spindle frequency range was

    increased during non-rapid eye movement sleep (2nd episode) following

    the 14-Hz pulse-modulated condition. A similar but non-significant

    increase was also observed following the 217-Hz pulse-modulated

    condition. Importantly, this exposure-induced effect showed considerable

    individual variability. Regarding cognitive performance, no clear exposure-

    related effects were seen. Consistent with previous findings, our

    results provide further evidence that pulse-modulated RF EMF alter brain

    physiology, although the time-course of the effect remains variable

    across studies. Additionally, we demonstrated that modulation frequency

    components within a physiological range may be sufficient to induce

    these effects.

Authors


  •   Schmid, M. R. (external author)
  •   Loughran, Sarah P. (external author)
  •   Regel, Sabine J. (external author)
  •   Murbach, M. (external author)
  •   Grunauer, Aleksandra Bratic. (external author)
  •   Rusterholz, Thomas (external author)
  •   Bersagliere, Alessia (external author)
  •   Kuster, N. (external author)
  •   Achermann, Peter (external author)

Publication Date


  • 2012

Citation


  • Schmid, M. R., Loughran, S. P., Regel, S. J., Murbach, M., Grunauer, A. Bratic., Rusterholz, T., Bersagliere, A., Kuster, N. & Achermann, P. (2012). Sleep EEG alterations: Effects of different pulse-modulated radio frequency electromagnetic fields. Journal of Sleep Research, 21 (1), 50-58.

Scopus Eid


  • 2-s2.0-84856120430

Has Global Citation Frequency


Number Of Pages


  • 8

Start Page


  • 50

End Page


  • 58

Volume


  • 21

Issue


  • 1

Place Of Publication


  • United Kingdom