© 2017 International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA) and IOS Press. Thirty-nine electronic English and Chinese articles on data quality assessment of the Chinese AIDS information system were critically reviewed. Some performance assessment related indicators of data quality have improved since the system was launched in 2008. After a thematic analysis of the factors that may affect data quality, four domains were identified. They are data management, data collector, information system, and data collection environment. The findings are useful to guide data quality improvement effort.