We here describe a novel α-conopeptide, Eu1.6 from Conus eburneus, which exhibits strong anti-nociceptive activity by an unexpected mechanism of action. Unlike other α-conopeptides that largely target nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), Eu1.6 displayed only weak inhibitory activity at the α3β4 and α7 nAChR subtypes and TTX-resistant sodium channels, and no activity at TTX-sensitive sodium channels in rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, or opiate receptors, VR1, KCNQ1, L- and T-type calcium channels expressed in HEK293 cells. However, Eu1.6 inhibited high voltage-activated N-type calcium channel currents in isolated mouse DRG neurons which was independent of GABAB receptor activation. In HEK293 cells expressing CaV2.2 channels alone, Eu1.6 reversibly inhibited depolarization-activated Ba2+ currents in a voltage- and state-dependent manner. Inhibition of CaV2.2 by Eu1.6 was concentration-dependent (IC50 ~1 nM). Significantly, systemic administration of Eu1.6 at doses of 2.5–5.0 μg/kg exhibited potent analgesic activities in rat partial sciatic nerve injury and chronic constriction injury pain models. Furthermore, Eu1.6 had no significant side-effect on spontaneous locomotor activity, cardiac and respiratory function, and drug dependence in mice. These findings suggest α-conopeptide Eu1.6 is a potent analgesic for the treatment of neuropathic and chronic pain and opens a novel option for future analgesic drug design.