Background: This scoping review explores the characteristics of the current built environment used to accommodate people with dementia in East and Southeast Asia. It is structured around the eight principles of design found in the Environmental Audit Tool High-Care. In addition, the review examines the level of knowledge and other influences contributing to the development of nursing homes in the region.
Methods: The review was carried out utilizing the methodological framework recommended by Arksey and O’Malley. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses provided an overarching structural framework for the reporting process and the Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcomes, and Context framework defined the scope of the review and focused on the research question. Six databases were accessed for the search, and 1,846 publications between 2001 and 2015 were retrieved.
Results: A total of 48 articles from 9 countries met the inclusion criteria. All articles presented discussions that fundamentally included at least one principle of design and with some including all principles. The most prevailing principle discussed, found in 59% of all the articles was the need for familiarity for residents in the environmental design of facilities.
Conclusions: The review found that the eight principles of design, when applied with cultural sensitivity in countries in East and Southeast Asia can identify gaps in knowledge of the design for dementia enabling environments and suggest areas for improvement. An assessment tool based on the principles of design will be able to provide a guide for stakeholders in the design, development, or modification of nursing home environments.