Nanoporous carbon (NC) materials have attracted great research interest for supercapacitor applications, because of their excellent electrochemical and mechanical stability, good electrical conductivity, and high surface area. Although there are many reports on metal–organic framework (MOF)-derived carbon materials, previous synthetic studies have been hindered by imperfect control of particle sizes and shapes. Here, we show precise control of the particle sizes of MOF-525 from 100 nm to 750 nm. After conversion of MOF-525 to NC, the effects of variation of the particle size on the electrochemical performance have been carefully investigated. The results demonstrate that our NC is a potential candidate for practical supercapacitor applications.