Hierarchically structured aggregates, consisting of TiO2 nanoparticles were produced via one-step
solvothermal syntheses with a mixed solvent system containing both acetic acid and ethanol. Two of
the resulting structures, one ~700nm and the other ~300nm in diameter, were found to be comprised
of 8.5nm and 10.5nm anatase crystals, and possess specifc surface areas of 138 and 106m2g−1
respectively. These particles were incorporated into Dye-sensitized Solar Cells (DSCs) as high surface
area scattering layers, along with a layer of a transparent material. Solar-to-electric conversion
efciencies (PCE) of 9.1% and 8.2% were recorded using these aggregated particles as compared to
those of commonly used large particles scattering layer 7.4%.