The challenge of controlling algal blooms and reusing algal biomass remain unsolved worldwide. We introduce a facile method to reuse Nannochloropsis biocrude oil (NBO) for the synthesis of nitrogen and sulfur co-doped carbon dots (N-S-C-dots). N-S-C-dots can pass through the heavily thickened wall of mature Arabidopsis thaliana (A. thaliana) guard cells because of high solubility and excellent biocompatibility. N-S-C-dots exhibit multicolor luminescence and could effectively reduce the interference of autofluorescence in plant cells by changing filters. Bioimaging of root tissues reveals that 2 major factors affect the transmission of N-S-C-dots: high osmotic pressure and intensity of cellular metabolism. This study highlights the potential application of CDs for bioimaging in plant cells and demonstrates the significance of investigating the reuse of algal biomass.