Rechargeable sodium-ion batteries (SIBs), as the most promising alternative to commercial lithium-ion batteries, have received tremendous attention during the last decade. Among all the anode materials for SIBs, metal sulfides/selenides (MXs) have shown inspiring results because of their versatile material species and high theoretical capacity. They suffer from large volume expansion, however, which leads to bad cycling performance. Thus, methods such as carbon modification, nanosize design, electrolyte optimization, and cut-off voltage control are used to obtain enhanced performance. Here, recent progress on MXs is summarized in terms of arranging the crystal structure, synthesis methods, electrochemical performance, mechanisms, and kinetics. Challenges are presented and effective ways to solve the problems are proposed, and a perspective for future material design is also given. It is hoped that light is shed on the development of MXs to help finally find applications for next-generation rechargeable batteries.