A new composite column named concrete-encased concrete-filled fibre reinforced polymer tube (CCFT) column has been proposed in this study. This composite column consists of an inner concrete-filled fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) tube, outer concrete confined with polymer grid, and concrete cover. In this study, a total of 16 concrete stub columns were cast and tested under axial compression. Columns were divided into eight groups, which included one group of plain concrete columns, two groups of FRP confined concrete columns, and five groups of CCFT columns. For FRP confined concrete columns, one layer and two layers of carbon FRP (CFRP) sheet were wrapped, respectively. For CCFT columns, glass FRP (GFRP) tube was used to confine the inner concrete, and polymer grid was used to confine the outer concrete. The test results show that considerable increase in strength and ductility can be obtained for CCFT columns. An analytical model has been developed to predict the axial compressive behaviour of CCFT columns. The analytical results have been found to be in good agreement with the experimental results. Based on the analytical model, the influences of different parameters on the axial compressive behaviour of CCFT columns have been investigated through parametric analyses.