In the last decade, there has been an increased interest in anthocyanin-based research with a growing need to accurately measure anthocyanin intake in population studies. Anthocyanin content in foods is known to vary across regions due to climate, soil content and harvesting practices. To accurately measure nutrient intake in population studies, food composition databases tailored to specific regions need to be developed. The aim of this study was to describe the first stage development of an Australian anthocyanin food composition database focusing on fruit and vegetables. A systematic literature search found analytical data on the anthocyanin content of five fruits and two vegetables (purple dragon carrot and red cabbage) out of the total plant-based food category (58 individual fruits and 62 vegetables). In addition, values were found for ten Australian native fruits, of which 9 are not included in the Australian database. Development of an anthocyanin food composition database relies on the availability of analytical food data. In the case of Australian fruits and vegetables, there are limited data available for anthocyanin content and imputations from other polyphenol datasets will be necessary. Regardless, development of an anthocyanin database tailored specifically for Australian research will facilitate better estimation of intake.