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Emerging economies

Chapter


Abstract


  • Eighty per cent of the world population, of more than 7 billion people.live on less than $10 a

    day; nearly 50 per cent on less than $2.50 a day; and more than 1.4 billion receiving less than

    $1.25 live in extreme poverty. Worldwide, 870 million people have insufficient food to eat.

    According to the United Nations' Children's Fund (UNICEF) 22,000 children die daily due

    to poverty. In 1998, the United Nations (UN) estimated that it would cost $40 billion annually

    (about $58 billion today) to offer basic education, clean water and sanitation, reproductive

    health, and basic health and nutrition to everyone in every developing country.1 In contrast,

    world military expenditure in 2012 is circa $1.756 trillion (Stockholm International Peace

    Research Institute Year Book, 2013).Many of these issues, especially poverty and hunger, can be

    alleviated by direct aid in the form of cash and provisions. This sometimes has merit, for example,

    a starving person cannot be more productive without greater sustenance, and immediate

    relief is essential for disasters whether caused by nature or humankind. However, it can only be

    a limited, temporary solution. If sustained it can create dependency, for example, with refugees

    refusing to return home when safe for fear that food and services may be more uncertain or

    lower than in camps. Longer-run development needs to be sustainable so, for example, capital

    donations such as mechanised boats for fishermen can become abandoned due to insufficient

    resources or expertise to maintain them. Direct aid may simply treat the symptoms rather than

    the causes of poverty, which vary between countries.These can include lack of natural resources

    and capital; unstable and/or ineffective governments; poor infrastructure such as transport and

    communications; inadequate education and expertise; corruption; barriers to trade; and dependence

    on foreign governments and/or businesses. Development goes beyond merely economic

    growth. Its benefits need to leverage up the resources of the poor, not just with respect to

    income but also, inter alia, their prospects of employment, an improved quality of life, education

    and literacy, and participation and influence in local and national politics.

Publication Date


  • 2018

Citation


  • Tanima, F. A. & Hopper, T. (2018). Emerging economies. In R. Roslender (Ed.), The Routledge Companion to Critical Accounting (pp. 260-282). London: Routledge.

International Standard Book Number (isbn) 13


  • 9781138025257

Book Title


  • The Routledge Companion to Critical Accounting

Start Page


  • 260

End Page


  • 282

Place Of Publication


  • London

Abstract


  • Eighty per cent of the world population, of more than 7 billion people.live on less than $10 a

    day; nearly 50 per cent on less than $2.50 a day; and more than 1.4 billion receiving less than

    $1.25 live in extreme poverty. Worldwide, 870 million people have insufficient food to eat.

    According to the United Nations' Children's Fund (UNICEF) 22,000 children die daily due

    to poverty. In 1998, the United Nations (UN) estimated that it would cost $40 billion annually

    (about $58 billion today) to offer basic education, clean water and sanitation, reproductive

    health, and basic health and nutrition to everyone in every developing country.1 In contrast,

    world military expenditure in 2012 is circa $1.756 trillion (Stockholm International Peace

    Research Institute Year Book, 2013).Many of these issues, especially poverty and hunger, can be

    alleviated by direct aid in the form of cash and provisions. This sometimes has merit, for example,

    a starving person cannot be more productive without greater sustenance, and immediate

    relief is essential for disasters whether caused by nature or humankind. However, it can only be

    a limited, temporary solution. If sustained it can create dependency, for example, with refugees

    refusing to return home when safe for fear that food and services may be more uncertain or

    lower than in camps. Longer-run development needs to be sustainable so, for example, capital

    donations such as mechanised boats for fishermen can become abandoned due to insufficient

    resources or expertise to maintain them. Direct aid may simply treat the symptoms rather than

    the causes of poverty, which vary between countries.These can include lack of natural resources

    and capital; unstable and/or ineffective governments; poor infrastructure such as transport and

    communications; inadequate education and expertise; corruption; barriers to trade; and dependence

    on foreign governments and/or businesses. Development goes beyond merely economic

    growth. Its benefits need to leverage up the resources of the poor, not just with respect to

    income but also, inter alia, their prospects of employment, an improved quality of life, education

    and literacy, and participation and influence in local and national politics.

Publication Date


  • 2018

Citation


  • Tanima, F. A. & Hopper, T. (2018). Emerging economies. In R. Roslender (Ed.), The Routledge Companion to Critical Accounting (pp. 260-282). London: Routledge.

International Standard Book Number (isbn) 13


  • 9781138025257

Book Title


  • The Routledge Companion to Critical Accounting

Start Page


  • 260

End Page


  • 282

Place Of Publication


  • London