FeCO3 with the morphology of microspheres and rice-like were successfully fabricated by a facile mixed solvothermal method by using urea and ammonium bicarbonate as precipitants, respectively. The as-synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The electrochemical properties of the samples were investigated by battery testing system. The influences of different precipitants on its structure, morphology and the electrochemical properties were also discussed. The results showed that the diameter of FeCO3 microspheres (FCO-1) was 8–10 μm by using urea as precipitant, while the size of FeCO3 rice-like (FCO-2) by using ammonium bicarbonate as precipitant was 0.5–1.0 μm. When used as an anode material for lithium ion batteries, FCO-1 and FCO-2 delivered the initial specific discharge capacities of 1563.54 and 1518.09 mAh g−1 at the current density of 100 mA g−1 in the voltage range of 0.01–3 V and remained its reversible value of 854.65 and 1019.47 mAh g−1 over 100 cycles, respectively. The FCO-2 still possessed a considerable capacity of 890.23 mAh g−1 at a high current density of 500 mA g−1. Therefore, FCO-2 synthesized through using ammonium bicarbonate as precipitant could be a potential anode candidate for lithium ion batteries.