A novel type of one-dimensional ordered mesoporous carbon fiber has been prepared via the electrospinning technique by using resol as the carbon source and triblock copolymer Pluronic F127 as the template. Sulfur is then encapsulated in this ordered mesoporous carbon fibers by a simple thermal treatment. The interwoven fibrous nanostructure has favorably mechanical stability and can provide an effective conductive network for sulfur and polysulfides during cycling. The ordered mesopores can also restrain the diffusion of long-chain polysulfides. The resulting ordered mesoporous carbon fiber sulfur (OMCF-S) composite with 63% S exhibits high reversible capacity, good capacity retention and enhanced rate capacity when used as cathode in rechargeable lithium–sulfur batteries. The resulting OMCF-S electrode maintains a stable discharge capacity of 690 mAh/g at 0.3 C, even after 300 cycles.