The development of electrically conducting fibers based on known cytocompatible materials is of interest to those engaged in tissue regeneration using electrical stimulation. Herein, it is demonstrated that with the aid of rheological insights, optimized formulations of graphene containing spinnable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) dopes can be made possible. This helps extend the general understanding of the mechanics involved in order to deliberately translate the intrinsic superior electrical and mechanical properties of solution-processed graphene into the design process and practical fiber architectural engineering. The as-produced fibers are found to exhibit excellent electrical conductivity and electrochemical performance, good mechanical properties, and cellular affinity. At the highest loading of graphene (24.3 wt%), the conductivity of as-prepared fibers is as high as 150 S m-1 (more than two orders of magnitude higher than the highest conductivity achieved for any type of nanocarbon-PLGA composite fibers) reported previously. Moreover, the Young's modulus and tensile strength of the base fiber are enhanced 647- and 59-folds, respectively, through addition of graphene.