An innovative method based on optical feedback self-mixing interferometry technique is developed into a system for Young's modulus measurement. The proposed approach utilizes fast Fourier transform to extract the fundamental resonant frequency that is contained in the frequency- and amplitude-modulated self-mixing signal. The system that consists of five modules: sampling, filtering, sensing, impacting and supporting, and the sample has been elaborately designed and all the design requirements have been analyzed. Simulations have been performed for verification of the approach and the design requirements. The result proves the feasibility and applicability.