The emergence of the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) in the 1970s placed
potentially vast areas under national jurisdiction. From a regime of relatively
modest territorial seas close to the coast as the only basis of fisheries jurisdiction
for States, suddenly the international community embraced a new form of
jurisdiction over resources that extended to fisheries up to zoo nautical miles
from land. This extension brought over one third of the world's oceans under
national jurisdiction, or more importantly, approximately ninety percent of
the world's wild fish catch.