To determine and demonstrate the weldability of high-Nb high-temperature processed (HTP) steels and provide extremely valuable information for future line pipe steel design and general steel manufacture, in the current study the toughness in simulated coarse-grained heat-affected zone (CGHAZ) of an X80 grade steel manufactured using HTP was evaluated. The simulated CGHAZs subjected to thermal cycles with various heat inputs (HIs) (0.8 to 5.0 kJ/mm) were produced using a Gleeble 3500 simulator. The microstructures and corresponding mechanical properties were investigated by means of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction, hardness testing, and Charpy V-notch (CVN) testing. The microstructural examination shows that the simulated CGHAZs consisted of a bainite-dominant microstructure and relatively low amount (<2 pct) of martensite–austenite (M–A) constituent. The prior austenite grain size was controlled to be 45 to 55 µm at HIs of 0.8 to 3.5 kJ/mm, and remarkably increased to 85 µm at an HI of 5 kJ/mm. The results of CVN testing suggest that superior toughness can be achieved in the studied range of HIs (0.8 to 5 kJ/mm). This is thought to be associated with the combined effects of bainitic microstructure and low M–A fraction as well as comparatively fine austenite grain size in the studied CGHAZs.